2005. № 19
Methods and tutorials  
The basic theoretical problems relating to the meaning of a language unit, the twosided essence of the language unit, the content and expression aspects of the word (word combination and sentence), and the division of the unique language into its system and its structure, as well as the language levels, are being discussed. The working definitions of the notions and terms functioning in the given sphere of linguistics and languageteaching methodology are concidered. The main types of languageunit meanings (referential, pragmatic, and innerlinguistic) are presented and explained. Much space is given to the description and elucidation of the norms of the language system and the language structure. Keywords: 

Space technics and technology  
The development of parachute systems having various functions, namely, the space parachute systems designed to descend the vehicles on the planets with an atmosphere stipulates the solution of the parachute extraction out of the canister, pack problem. Up till now this problem has been solved either by computation or on base of fullscale test data, in case such test was possible to be carried out. The present paper data prove the ground bench tests conduction to be real, besides there are given the criteria for the bench test simulation of the extraction device motion parameters similar to those of a fullscale parachute, including a space parachute system Keywords: 

Aviation technics and technology  
The improvement of the aerodynamics characteristics of aircrafts requires introduction of the new progressive approaches, one of which is the application of an adaptive flexibleskin wing. In a kind of constructive, layout, technological and aerodynamic complexity of such unit using for its development CAD/CAM/CAE of a high level, such as UNIGRAPHICS, CATIA and others, allows conducting a life cycle support of a product. In present clause two basic tasks arising at designing of an adaptive wing are opened. This conducting a designer database of ready external contours using a principle of parametrical designing in CAD/CAM/CAE and mathematical modeling twodimension contours of flexible coverings for various corners of a deviation of mechanization leading and trailing edges of an adaptive wing. Keywords: 

Aerospace propulsion engineering  
Influence of design factors in fatigue durability of punched panel under uniformly distributed stationary random pressure load by using hypothesis of spectral of total failure is stated.The results of micro modules and coefficients of stress concentation of load factor in bending and tension on punched plate are used for calculation. Keywords: 

Mathematics  
There is a constructive way of setting involution area transformations, which represents the totality of Geerst's conversion that belongs to parallel areas' beam. We concluded the transformation formula, analyzed the F and P systems, and investigated homoloid qualities. Area transformations intend for modeling two factors dependences. Keywords: 

It is proposed to use Hermit sets for analysis of physical parameters of objects. Mathematical models are analyzed and pointed some advantages of such method. One can only several coefficients for effective describing of field with complicate shapes. Method of selection of coefficients for approximation of videoinformation is proposed. Keywords: 

Physics  
It is shown that an unique time may be used when applying the Ampere and BiotSavaratLaplace laws even in the case of a time dependent electromagnetic field. The paper is published at http://groupsbeta.google.com/group/sci.physics.electromag Keywords: 

The impossibility to obtain the electrodynamics Maxwell tensor in the framework of the Lagrange formalism is confirmed by a professor Soper's mistake made on this way. Nevertheless, a heuristic method allows using the Lagrange energymomentum and spin tensors for obtaining the classical spin tensor. The paper is published at www.sciprint.org and http://groupsbeta.google.com/group/sci.physics.research Keywords: 

Several ways of the decomposition of vector fields into the irrotational and solenoidal parts are considered. The fact is used that quantities of electromagnetism are covariant (antisymmetric) tensors or contravariant (antisymmetric) tensor densities. The classes of quantities is related by a conjugation. All differential operations, grad, div, curl, are considered from a single point of view as well as the inverse integral operations are. It is shown that a repeated differential operation or repeated integral operation yields zero, but the conjugation between the two operations leads to infinite or finite chains of quantities. Laplace operator and the inverse Laplace operator are expressed in terms of the differential and integral operations. The results are illustrated by simple examples. The paper is published at www.sciprint.org. Keywords: 

Applied geometry  
This article deals with a problem of optimization diacetonesorbosa oxidation process by making its mathematical model as two competitive areas. They connect production issue on hightension current and substance with a function of three parameters (electrolysis time, the current consistence and summary anode area). As a result time intervals of changing parameters are determined. This provides the maximum production issue. Keywords: 